MINI-NUT PROPAGATION TECHNIQUE OF KOLA (Cola nitida (Vent.) Schott and Endl.) INFLUENCES ON NURSERY GROWTH AND EARLY FIELD ESTABLISHMENT OF THE CROP’S TRANSPLANTS

L A HAMMED, S M ADEBAYO, J G BODUNDE, A O OLAIYA, A B OLANIYAN, O M OLOSUNDE

Abstract


The experiment was a split-plot laid out in completely randomised design (nursery) and randomised complete block design (field), each replicated thrice. Nut-colour (white, pink and red: main plot) combined with mini-nut (whole-nut, 75% Embryo Portion of Cotyledon (75%EPC), 50%EPC, 25%EPC and Excised Embryo Portion of Cotyledon (EEPC): sub plot) gave 15 treatments. Sowing was carried out in the nursery using sawdust. Data collected on growth parameters (survival rate, plant height, number of leaves and dry matter) were analyzed and means compared with Least Significant Difference and Duncan multiple range test (P<0.05). Transplant mortality was observed within 4 Weeks After Nursery Transplanting (WANT) and 12 Weeks After Field Transplanting (WAFT) with those raised from EEPC having lowest survival of 96.55% and 60.00% in the nursery and field, respectively. Mini-nut treatments influenced height and leaf production in the nursery and field. Transplants raised from whole-nut grew taller (43.00 cm) followed by those from 75%EPC (38.50cm), 50%EPC (35.67cm), 25%EPC (32.20cm) and EEPC (35.00cm) at 12 WANT. Similar observations were made on the field. Combined effects of nut-coloured biotype and mini-nut treatments significantly influenced height and leaf production of the transplants with those raised from whole-nut, 75%EPC and 50%EPC having comparable height and leaf production. Kola transplants raised from 50%EPC provides a replacement to the conventional propagule of whole-nut. This is due to its ability to withstand both transplanting and field stresses. 


Keywords


Cola nitida, field establishment, mini-nut propagule, nursery growth, seedlings’ transplants

Full Text:

PDF

References


Batish, D.R., Singh, H.P., Kau, M., Kohli, R.K. and Yadav, S.S. (2008). Caffeine affects adventitous rooting causes biochemical changes in the hypocotyl cuttings of mung bean (Phaseolus aureus Roxb.). Acta Physiol Plant, 20: 401-405

Brain, M., Charles, W., Bryant, C.W. and Cunningham, M. (2000). "How Caffeine Works". HowStuffWorks.com. Visited on 22 August 2017

Ekanade, O. (1989). Effects of productive and non-productive kola, Cola nitida Vent. (Schott and Endlicher), on the status of major soil physical and chemical properties in Southwest Nigeria. International Tree Crops Journal. 5: 279-294.

Elias, I.L.G. and Bressani, R. (1979). The nutritional role of polyphenols in beans. In: "Polyphenols in cereal and legumes”. Proceedings of a symposium held during the 36th Annual meeting at the Institute of Food Technologist, St Louis, Mo, pp: 10-13.

FAO. (2015). Kola Production Statistics. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. FAOSTAT. www.fao.org

Hammed, L.A., Olaniyan, A.B., Olaiya, A.O. and Bodunde, J.G. (2013). Germination and growth performance of kola (Cola nitida) seeds in the nursery as influenced by cotyledon reduction. Seed Science and Technology, 41 (2): 292 – 297.

Hammed, L.A. and Adeyemi, E.A. (2005). Germination and seedling performance of cashew (Anacardium occidentale, L.) as affected by nut-sowing orientations and cotyledon removal. Nigerian Journal of Horticultural Science (NJHS), 10: 59-64.

Hartmann, H.T., Kester D.E., Davies, F.T. and Geneve, R.L. (2009). Plant Propagation: Principles and Practices, Seventh Edition. Published by PHI Learning Private Limited, New Delhi. 880 Pages.

Hauenstein, A. (1974). La noix de cola. Coutumeset rites de quelquesethaies de Coted'Ivoire. Antropos, 69: 457-493.

Irvine, F.R. (1956). “Plant of the Gold Coast,” Oxford University Press.

Lewis, W.H. and Elvin-Lewis, M.P.F. (2003). Medical Botany: Plants affecting human health. 2nd edition. Published in New York, Chichester Wiley. 882p.

Lovejoy, P.E. (1980). Kola in the history of West Africa. Cahier d'Etudes Africaines 78, 97-134.

Madubunyi, I.I. (1995). Antimicrobial activities of the constituents of Garcinia kola seeds. Int. J. Pharmacognosy, 33, 3: 232-237.

Nickells, R.W.D. (1986). The discovery that cola-nuts contain caffeine. The Pharmaceutical Journal, 236: 401-402.

Oguntuga, D.B.A. (1975). Chemical composition of kola nuts.Ghana J. of Agric Sci. 8, pg 121-125.

Oladokun, M.A.O. (1988). Physiological aspects of kola improvement. Càfé Cacao Thé (Paris), Vol. xxxii, no. 4, pp. 311-318

Oladokun, M.A.O. (2000). Kola: The Tree of Life. An Inaugural Lecture, Federal University of Agriculture Abeokuta, May 3rd 2000. 37p.

Opeke, L.K. (2005). Tropical Tree Crops. Spectrum Books Ltd., Ibadan. 327pp.

Quarcoo, A.T. (1973). A Handbook on kola. Cocoa Research Institute of Nigeria. 100p.

Russell, T.A. (1955). The kola of Nigeria and the Cameroons. Tropical Agriculture, London. Vol. 32, no 3 pp. 210-240.

Van Eijnatten, C.L.M. (1966). Variation in Cola nitida, size of the nut in relation to length of the embryo and its position. In Memorandum, Cocoa Research Institute of Nigeria 13: 1 – 8.

Van Eijnatten, C.L.M. (1969). Kola: Its Botany and Cultivation. Amsterdam, the Royal Tropical Institute, Department of Agricultural Research, 100p Communication No. 59.

Wink, M. (1983). Inhibition of seed dormancy by quinolizidine alkaloids: Aspects of allelopathy in Lupinus albus L. Planta, 158: 365 – 368.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2017 Journal of Organic Agriculture and Environment